ASTM D 3278-2021 Determination of Liquid Flash Point with a Small Closed Cup Apparatus

Meaning and Purpose
5.1 Flash point measurement Sample response to heat and ignition source under controlled laboratory conditions. It is only one of many characteristics to be considered when assessing the overall flammability hazard of a material.

5.2 Flash points are used by government regulators in transportation and safety regulations to define and classify flammable and combustible materials. For a precise definition of these classes, see the specific regulations involved.

5.3 Flash points can indicate the possible presence of highly volatile and flammable impurities or contaminants in a given liquid, such as the presence of residual solvents in solvent refined dry oils.

5.4 These balanced flash point test methods use smaller specimens (2 mL) and shorter test times (1 min) compared to conventional non-equilibrium test methods such as test Method D56 and Test Method D93.

5.5 Test method D3828, Test method D8174 and ISO 3679 are similar test methods and use the same equipment.

ASTM D 3278-2021 Determination of Liquid Flash Point with a Small Closed Cup Apparatus

Scope of
1.1 These test methods include procedures to determine whether A material flashes at a specified temperature when using a small closed cup device (flash/no flash method A) or to determine the minimum finite temperature at which the material flashes (Method B). The test method is applicable to paints, enamels, lacquers, varnish, solvents and related products with flash points between 0°C and 110°C (32°F and 230°F) and viscosity below 15 000 mm 2/ second (cSt) at 25 °C (77 °F).

Note 1: Tests can be performed at higher or lower temperatures, but the accuracy has not been determined.

Note 2: More viscous materials can be tested according to Appendix A4.

Note 3: Organic peroxides can be tested in accordance with Appendix A5, which describes the applicable safety precautions.

Note 4: The United States Department of Labor (OSHA, Hazard Communications), the United States Department of Transportation (RSPA) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have designated test method D3278 as one of several acceptable methods for determining the flash point of liquids in their regulations.

ASTM D 3278-2021 Determination of Liquid Flash Point with a Small Closed Cup Apparatus

1.2 Values expressed in SI units should be considered standard values. The values given in parentheses following SI units are for reference only and are not considered standard values.

1.3 This standard is used to measure and describe the reaction of materials, products or components to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not in itself contain all the factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of materials, products or components under actual fire conditions.

1.4 This standard is not intended to address all safety issues, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health and environmental practices and to determine the applicability of regulatory restrictions prior to use.

1.5 This international Standard has been developed in accordance with the internationally recognized standardization principles established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guidelines and Recommendations issued by the Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade of the World Trade Organization.

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