ISO 11798-1999 Information and Documentation – Persistence and durability of writing, printing and copying on paper – Requirements and test methods

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is a global alliance of national standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The development of international standards is usually carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member institution interested in a subject on which a technical committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International governmental and non-governmental organizations liaising with ISO are also involved in this work. ISO works closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of electrotechnical standardization.

The draft international standards adopted by the Technical Committee will be circulated to member bodies for voting. Publication as an international standard requires approval by at least 75% of member bodies.

International standard ISO 11798 was developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 46, Information and Documentation, Subcommittee SC 10, Physical Preservation of Documents.

Annexes A and B form an integral part of this international standard. Annex C is for reference only.

Writing materials and devices that meet the requirements of this international standard may be used to prepare paper documents with stable and durable images, i.e. images that may have little or no variation in characteristics affecting readability, and the possibility of copying or converting paper documents into other data carriers, such as microforms.

It is primarily used for writing, printing, and copying on writing and printing paper as well as copying paper.

This standard specifies the requirements and test methods for assessing image stability. Certain properties of the image, such as wear resistance, depend on the combination of the image and the paper. Permanent files (ISO 9706) and archival files (ISO 11108) used to prepare files can differ greatly in attributes that are important for image quality and persistence. The test conditions of this standard are selected in order to obtain results representative of the majority of papers on the market for a particular imaging process.

In this standard, the requirements are based on

— image color intensity and appearance;

— light resistance;

– waterproof;

– transmission of recorded images;

— wear resistance;

— heat resistance;

– Record the influence on the mechanical strength of the paper.

More stringent limits and other requirements than those set out in this international standard may be required when testing materials and machinery for documents of the highest durability and durability.

Experience has shown that images written with India ink, as well as printed images using commercial printing inks, are highly durable. However, in many documents, acid inks have affected the paper to the point of paper corrosion, and images produced by dry or liquid toner are also susceptible to aging problems.

The experience of modern images is limited to a few decades. Images prepared with modern materials and machinery are often completely different from older images in terms of composition and properties. Therefore, conclusions based on studies of older documents in libraries and archives are of limited use when discussing the persistence of modern documents.

Strictly speaking, the only way to test the persistence of an image is to process the document and store it under relevant conditions for a long time, perhaps hundreds of years. In practice, one must rely on observations of documents that are only a few years old, and an assessment of the impact of factors known to affect the persistence and persistence of images.

1 range
This standard sets out requirements and test methods for assessing the persistence and durability of writing, printing and copying on paper stored for long periods in libraries, archives and other protected environments.

It is applicable to

— Images on paper, except for documents within the ISO/TC 42 “photography” range;

— Colorful images.

The information content of a color image should be preserved, but not necessarily the full artistic quality of the color image. Files whose information content is subject to minor colour changes are not covered by this standard.

It doesn’t apply to

– Documents stored under harmful conditions, such as the effects of high humidity, overheating, radiation (such as light), high concentrations of contaminants, or water that may promote microbial attack. However, because files may be kept in an unprotected environment before being transferred to a protected environment, water and light resistance are important;

– Legal documents, such as bank documents, where authenticity is a major concern.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, by reference, constitute the provisions of this International Standard. At the time of publication, the version shown is valid. All standards are subject to revision and Parties to an agreement based on this International Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the latest versions of the following standards. IEC and ISO members maintain a register of international standards currently in force.

ISO 5-3:1995, Photography – Density measurement – Part 3: Spectral conditions.

ISO 1924-2:1994, Paper and board. Determination of tensile properties. Part 2: Constant elongation method.

ISO 2470:-1), paper, board and pulp — Measurement of diffuse blue reflectance (ISO brightness).

ISO 4892-2:1994, Plastics. Methods of exposure to laboratory light sources. Part 2: Xenon arc sources.

– ISO 5626:1993, Paper – Determination of folding durability.

ISO 7724-1: — 2) Paints and varnishes — colorimetric methods — Part 1: Principles.

ISO 7724-2: — 3) Paints and varnishes — colorimetric methods — Part 2: Measurement of colour.

ISO 7724-3: — 4) Paints and varnishes — colorimetric methods — Part 3: Calculation of colour difference in CIELAB.

ISO 9352:1995, Plastics. Determination of abrasion resistance of grinding wheels.

ISO 9706-1994, Information and Documentation. Paper for documents. Permanent requirement

ISO 12757-1:1998, Ballpoint pens and refill. Part 1: General purposes.

ISO 12757-2:1998, Ballpoint pens and refill Part 2: File Usage (DOC).

– ISO 14145-1:1998, Ball pens and refill. Part 1: General purposes.

ISO 14145-2:1998, Ball pens and refill — Part 2: File Use (DOC).

BS 3484:19915), specification for blue and black recording ink.

3 Definition
For the purposes of this standard, the following definitions apply:



To produce an image on paper that is a replica of an image on another document carrier, for example by a photographic or electrostatic printing process


Official document

Recorded information that can be treated as a unit in the documentation process

[Source: ISO 5127-1:19,836)]



The ability to resist the effects of wear in a performance situation



Pigments are distributed on paper as characters or other visually recognizable patterns


Monochrome image

A color record of the image


Colorful image

Consists of images recorded in a variety of colors, where colors form part of the information content



It can maintain chemical and physical stability for a long time


Permanent image

Images that have little or no change in properties affecting their use during long-term storage in libraries, archives, and other protected environments.

Note 1: Examples of these properties are the stability of the created image (e.g. legibility and contrast) and the stability of the paper recording system.



Produce an image on paper from a printing press, a thermal printer, or a computer printer, such as a laser or inkjet printer



Write, print and copy


Spot color image

Use different colors of the image in separate sections, so the colors don’t overlay



Make images on paper, one character or stroke at a time

Example: Hand drawing with pen or pencil, or by typewriter or pen plotter.

Only the standard information section is public. To see the full content, you need to purchase the standard through the official channels.ISO 11798-1999 Information and Documentation – Persistence and durability of writing, printing and copying on paper – Requirements and test methods

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